續「神話一則」:梁思成的考察報告 / 呂欽文

(續「神話一則」)
話說柯比意回到天國後,向「建築列祖列宗聯誼會」報告他的魂遊心得。眾人聽了後皆半信半疑,咸認古今中外建築師的使命在於融合社會文化、歷史價值,創作兼顧實用、安全、與美感經驗的居住環境,成為一位建築師應已具備一定的素養,行為舉止亦應有一定的氣度,何如能像柯氏口中的台灣建築等這般行徑。「建築走到21世紀,竟是如此不堪,我等數千年奠定的大業恐將不保,是可忍孰不可忍!! 」在群情激憤下,輪值主席為特魯維(建築十書的作者),隨指派與台灣「同文同種」的梁思成,親往探查。
梁氏與柯氏在設計聯合國大樓時共識過,了解柯氏的個人主義作風,加上柯氏對東方文化所知有限,恐有以偏概全之虞。
於是乎梁思成決定好好走訪台灣建築產官學各界,從天堂的高度與歷史的角度好好做一次觀察。

他首先來到「全國建築師公會」。他看到有幾個西裝畢挺的”大人物”圍坐在一張圓桌旁,正在討論如何處理各地公會成立後財產與代表權分配的問題….....,他們顯然已在這個議題上面談了許多次,因為談話間常常不耐煩的冒出三字經國罵…….
旁邊的小房間裡,則有一個叫做什麼「職業服務委員會」的,一群年輕建築師在討論”採購法”與公共工程的種種,說什麼這個案子被罰了多少多少,那個建築師又吃了多少多少的虧;這些事他們好像也談了很多回,除了每個人臉上充滿了無奈與憤慨外,談話間也常常不屑的冒出三字經國罵……
他開始了解柯比意描述的建築師大會開會時的氣氛。確實,每個人都像是一顆炸彈,隨時可以點爆;所不同的,以他今天的觀察,只是引爆點罷了。
這天梁思成來到公共工程委員會,想了解政府與民間的運作模式,尤其在建築這個領域。這個會議的議題是「工程品質」。列席的各單位包括建築師、營造業等公會;兩個小時的會議,雖然建築師公會的代表極力闡明建築師的專業職責與營造業者的分野,但最後的結論好像只有一個:建築師做監造,拿了錢就要負責品質到底,營造廠的缺失就是監造建築師的缺失!
梁思成看到營造業者面有喜色,在底下竊竊私語「…哼!叫你去舔鋼筋你也要去舔…」。
「他ㄋㄟˊㄋㄟˋ的!,這是什麼邏輯,這是什麼屁話!!!建築師為了照顧品質難道還要下場幫你拿漫刀粉平嗎?!」梁思成終身溫文儒雅,自己也沒想到到了台灣也跟著飆起國罵來了。
梁思成從工程會所在的信義計畫區中油大樓出來,信步沿著仁愛路走。他看到了國父紀念館。他久聞王大閎先生的這個作品,只是還沒有”機緣”和他聊聊。以梁思成自己對中國建築的了解,他著時對王先生化繁為簡,允執厥中卻仍不失中國人文氣息的現代建築作品深為佩服。但一路走來,卻未再見其他能引起他多注意的作品。他隨便走入巷子裡的某個建築師事務所,想探探台灣建築師在做些什麼東東。他發現整個事務所在忙著檢討法規,包括都市設計審議、樹木保護、綠建築、無障礙設施、再生能源率、智慧建築、綠建築標章……。
他再走入另外一家事務所,他們看起來似乎輕鬆多了,但他們好像是專門在做什麼「消防安全檢查」「變更使用執照」之類的….。
他本來有點為台北建築的貧瘠覺得失落,但他現在慢慢了解那背後的原因,因為建築師都沒力氣做建築設計了。
台灣的建築現象異於世界發展,該在那裡找原因?回天國之前,梁思成跑了趟教育部與考選部。他認為這兩個單位一個負責建築師的教育,一個負責建築師的考試,這兩個內在因素,與表現出來的現象會有相當關係。
………………………
取得了相關資料後回到天國,梁思成再花了相當的力氣,整理了這趟台灣行的建築心得做成了考察報告,向聯誼會報告:
…………台灣建築師之表現,柯比意先生所描述的皆為事實;經本人多方查訪,了解其肇始原因可歸納如下-----------
一、 考試制度不佳,考試結果鑑別度不足,致使取得建築師資格者並非吾人期許之輩,反倒是具有建築師能力與素養者遭到排拒。無品無能者眾,就像毛澤東說的,由量變至質變;公會走樣,建築表現走樣,台灣建築江河日下之理甚明!
二、 考試制度不佳、建築師創作無能、台灣建築乏善可陳、建築專業自然逐漸式微,他種領域者如土木結構技師,遂自認「彼可取而代之」,因而衍生近年建築簽證資格被要求放寬(予土木結構技師)之議….。
三、 政府部門踐踏專業,視專業為無物。不僅以公權力掌控合約、訂定各種不平等條款,工作無限加上嚴刑峻罰;以防弊為名,處處以對待賊人的方式看待專業者。更有甚者,審查疊床架屋、查核繁文縟節,虛耗專業者之熱情與人力物力。許多有志之建築師,雖心向創意,卻終究落到身心俱疲,轉而投身私人建設者有之,背離心愛家園遠走他鄉者有之…..。
四、 政府部門放任政治勢力運作,導致各種專業間責任分工混淆,監造與營造者之責任分界早已不清,建築師權益毫無保障,生死命運全繫於機運...........
五、 考試制度影響建築教育,建築師考試補習班當道;如此年復一年,台灣建築之命脈幾將斷送矣!!!
(梁思成說到這,想到同文同種的台灣建築師的遭遇,竟然有點哽咽起來;王大閎已遠,將來在天國能與台灣建築師對話的恐沒幾個咿…..)
主席問梁思成:「台灣建築師中難道沒有人出來做點事嗎?」
梁思成答曰:「亟思改革者倒也不缺,聽說早期有王力甫、李俊仁、黃模春等人,近期也有潘冀、陳柏森等人,更聽說近幾年有位陳邁先生以七十高齡帶領一群年輕建築師、教授組成一個什麼團體,積極參與建築師公會到政府規章制度及建築師考試制度的研究與改革…..」
「情況如何?」
「不瞞各位說,這群人有心卻不得其門而入;公部門處處以建築師公會為對象,但公會關心的事情….各位也知道『什麼鳥唱什麼歌』….恐非你我所認為關鍵者….
「再者,台灣建築學界其實不乏清流,對建築的認知亦能綜觀古今橫貫東西,雖迭有建言,但政府部門我行我素,建築師公會則陽奉陰違…..
「最令人擔心的是,台灣建築的問題,大家都知道,只有公會的人不知道(或不願正視),公會又長期被把持在前述無品無能者手中,年輕願改革之徒難有一席之地……長期以往,台灣建築不甚樂觀,是否波及你我建築信仰、甚而侵蝕建築之歷史地位,實不敢評估……」
會場一片靜默….。
後記:
梁思成出來透透氣,順便傳簡訊給辜振甫大老,說「台灣向以民主法治傲視於當代世界,更以此政治成果反『將』中國大陸;以建築界的表現,已充分反映台灣當局不重視專業、不重視甲乙方平等關係、無能力解決基本的專業分工問題、亦充分反映民主法治任人擺布,專業受政治力踐踏之事實;此等事實如何奢談改變我大陸十餘億人口;此等專業品質更如何讓我方允諾台灣建築師至大陸執業….」
(建築改革社呂欽文)

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